4 Easy Steps to the Literature Review

September 22, 2011

Your turn for literature review?

You have known for months that next week it is your turn to lead literature review. You keep telling yourself you should get to work, but something always gets in the way. So, you go to Google, or PubMed, and you throw some terms in the search box – implants, endodontics, ….you get hundreds of results. Frustrated, you procrastinate by checking Facebook…..

Does this sound like you?  We can help!

Following these four steps will save you time, give you direction, and help you conduct an effective review of the literature. Your colleagues will be impressed and your faculty will beam with pride!

Step 1. Select a topic.

Prior to searching, its a good idea to know what you are searching for. For a quick overview of the hottest topics in dentistry, try:

  • MDLinx Dentistry– this site offers a list of the most popular recent articles in dentistry.  You can also narrow your topic by specialty.
  • The American Dental Association’s Evidence Based Dentistry portal.  A comprehensive list of systematic reviews in all areas of dentistry.
  • Scanning the tables-of-contents of dentistry journals.

Step 2.  Search the dental literature.

Once you have selected your topic, you need to conduct a comprehensive search of the literature. We recommend using PubMed, because it contains citations for articles from thousands of dental and medical journals. Your librarian can help you develop a search strategy that will yield the best results, in the least amount of time.

Step 3.  Review your search results.

Once you have a good search in place, take some time to review the titles and abstracts of your results.  Using the clipboard feature in PubMed, select the citations for articles you might consider including in your review.

Step 4.  Retrieve the full text of your selected articles.

Always search PubMed via the PubMed link on the Bibby library website.  That way you can connect to the full article by clicking on the “Find Text @UR” icon (This works for post-1990 articles from journals that the library subscribes to).  You can also contact your library staff for help getting articles.


Celebrate the Root Canal!

March 29, 2011


What was the dentist doing in Panama?
…Looking for the Root Canal 

Root Canal Awareness Week

The American Association of Endodontists has designated  March 27-April 2 as Root Canal Awareness Week. This event is a national effort to raise awareness of endodontists and to teach the public that root canals should not be feared.

Dental professionals might be interested in the latest research pertaining to root canals. For example:

* Should a tooth be saved through endodontic therapy, or replaced with a single tooth implant? Take a look at the most recent evidence on this topic.
* Read the latest evidence regarding root canal methods, instrumentation and filling materials.

Bibby Library owns the following books about root canal therapy:

* Cohen’s Pathways of the Pulp
* Clinical Guide to Dental Traumatology
* Endodontic Therapy
* Clinical Endodontics
* Ingles Endodontics

Finally, check out this list of selected websites that provide information about root canals for your patients.


Have you Read these Recent Systematic Reviews in Orthodontics?

February 11, 2011

Effectiveness of orthodontic treatment with functional appliances on mandibular growth in the short term. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011 Jan;139(1):24-36.Marsico E, Gatto E, Burrascano M, Matarese G, Cordasco G.

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to analyze the current literature for the best evidence (randomized clinical trials) about the efficacy of functional appliances on mandibular growth in the short term.
METHODS: A survey of articles published up to September 2009 was performed by using the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Ovid Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACS, and Google Scholar. The reference lists of the retrieved articles were hand-searched for possible missing articles. No language restriction was applied during the identification of the published studies. A methodologic scoring process was developed to identify which randomized clinical trials were stronger methodologically. The selection process and the quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by 2 authors. A meta-analysis was attempted by using random-effects models. Clinical and statistical heterogeneity was examined, and a sensitivity analysis was performed.
RESULTS: Electronic searches identified the following items: 146 articles were retrieved from PubMed, 45 from Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, 29 from Ovid, 42 from LILACS, 628 from Web of Science, and 1000 from Google Scholar. Thirty-two articles fulfilled the specific inclusion criteria and were identified as potentially appropriate randomized clinical trials to be included in this meta-analysis. Only 4 articles, based on data from 338 patients (168 treated vs 170 controls) with Class II malocclusion in the mixed dentition, were selected for the final analysis. The quality analysis of these studies showed that the statistical methods were at the medium-high level. The outcome measurements chosen to evaluate the efficacy of the various functional appliances were Co-Pg, Pg/Olp + Co/Olp, and Co-Gn and the values were annualized and standardized to a uniform scale with the standardized mean differences (SMD). The results of the meta-analysis from the random-effects model showed a statistically significant difference of 1.79 mm in annual mandibular growth of the treatment group compared with the control group (SMD = 0.61, 95% CI, 0.30 to -0.93; chi-square test, 5.34; 3 df; P = 0.15; I(2) = 43.9%; test for overall effect, Z = 3.83 and P = 0.0001). The sensitivity analysis showed a substantially similar outcome of 1.91 mm (SMD = 0.65, 95% CI, 0.25 to 1.25; chi-square test, 4.96; 2 df; P = 0.08; I(2) = 59.7%; test for overall effect, Z = 3.19 and P = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of the effect of treatment with functional appliances vs an untreated control group showed that skeletal changes were statistically significant, but unlikely to be clinically significant.

Efficacy of short-term chincup therapy for mandibular growth retardation in Class III malocclusion. Angle Orthod. 2011 Jan;81(1):162-68. Liu ZP, Li CJ, Hu HK, Chen JW, Li F, Zou SJ.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of chincup therapy for mandibular growth retardation in early orthopedic treatment of Class III malocclusion.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic search for articles reporting randomized clinical trials, controlled clinical trials, and cohort studies testing the efficacy of chincup appliance for Class III malocclusion published up to the present was done through four databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; to March 2010), MEDLINE (1950-March 2010), EMBASE (1980-March 2010), and CBM (1978-March 2010). Study quality assessment and data extraction were done by two reviewers independently. Meta-analysis was done with the assistance of Revman 5.01.
RESULTS: The search resulted in 50 articles. After selection following the established criteria, four cohort studies qualified for the final review analysis. The results showed that chincup therapy decreased SNB angle and increased ANB angle; the total pooled weighted mean difference values (95% confidence interval) were −1.18 (−1.69, −0.67; P < .00001) and 1.90 (0.60, 3.21; P = .004), respectively. Two studies showed a increase in Gonial angle (P < .05) but no significant change in the mandibular length (Cd-Gn; P = .059 and .39, respectively). One study indicated that chincup therapy exerted no effect on mandibular growth retardation, and mandibular growth continued after the treatment in a downward direction.
CONCLUSION: There are insufficient data in these studies to make clear recommendations regarding the efficacy of chincup therapy in the retardation of mandibular growth.

Systematic review of self-ligating brackets.Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010 Jun;137(6):726.e1-726.e18; discussion 726-7. Chen SS, Greenlee GM, Kim JE, Smith CL, Huang GJ.
INTRODUCTION: Self-ligating brackets have been gaining popularity over the past several decades. Various advantages for these systems have been claimed. The purposes of this systematic review were to identify and review the orthodontic literature with regard to the efficiency, effectiveness, and stability of treatment with self-ligating brackets compared with conventional brackets.
METHODS: An electronic search in 4 data bases was performed from 1966 to 2009, with supplemental hand searching of the references of retrieved articles. Quality assessment of the included articles was performed. Data were extracted by using custom forms, and weighted mean differences were calculated.
RESULTS: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, including 2 randomized controlled trials with low risk of bias, 10 cohort studies with moderate risk of bias, and 4 cross-sectional studies with moderate to high risk of bias. Self-ligation appears to have a significant advantage with regard to chair time, based on several cross-sectional studies. Analyses also showed a small, but statistically significant, difference in mandibular incisor proclination (1.5 degrees less in self-ligating systems). No other differences in treatment time and occlusal characteristics after treatment were found between the 2 systems. No studies on long-term stability of treatment were identified.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite claims about the advantages of self-ligating brackets, evidence is generally lacking. Shortened chair time and slightly less incisor proclination appear to be the only significant advantages of self-ligating systems over conventional systems that are supported by the current evidence.

In-vitro orthodontic bond strength testing: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010 May;137(5):615-622.e3.  Finnema KJ, Ozcan M, Post WJ, Ren Y, Dijkstra PU.

INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to systematically review the available literature regarding in-vitro orthodontic shear bond strength testing and to analyze the influence of test conditions on bond strength.
METHODS: Our data sources were Embase and Medline. Relevant studies were selected based on predefined criteria. Study test conditions that might influence in-vitro bond strength were independently assessed by 2 observers. Studies reporting a minimum number of test conditions were included for meta-analysis by using a multilevel model with 3 levels, with author as the highest level, study as the second level, and specimens in the study as the lowest level. The primary outcome measure was bond strength.
RESULTS: We identified 121 relevant studies, of which 24 were included in the meta-analysis. Methodologic drawbacks of the excluded studies were generally related to inadequate reporting of test conditions and specimen storage. The meta-analysis demonstrated that 3 experimental conditions significantly affect in-vitro bond strength testing. Although water storage decreased bond strength on average by 10.7 MPa, each second of photopolymerization time and each millimeter per minute of greater crosshead speed increased bond strength by 0.077 and 1.3 MPa, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Many studies on in-vitro orthodontic bond strength fail to report test conditions that could significantly affect their outcomes.

5 things you should do RIGHT NOW with your iPhone or iTouch

November 3, 2010

5 things you should do right now with your iPhone or iTouch!

1. Get the mobile version of the Medical Center Libraries website – In Safari, search for Miner Library – our mobile page will load. To save to your home screen, locate the + sign on the bottom of the screen and select “Add to Home Screen”.

2.Get Blackboard – access your Blackboard courses right from your device.  Download the free Blackboard app from the app store.  Enter “University of Rochester” in the search box.  Select from the list and follow the on screen instructions.  Read more about the Blackboard app here.

3. Get UptoDate – evidence based information on medical and dental topics, available through the UR_MCwireless network or the UR_MCguest network.  Go to http://mobile.uptodate.com, locate the + sign on the bottom of the screen and select “Add to Home Screen”.

4. Bookmark the American Dental Association’s Center for Evidence Based Dentistry site – systematic reviews, clinical recommendations and more.  Go to http://ebd.ada.org/, locate the + sign on the bottom of the screen and select “Add to Home Screen”.

5. Join the medical center libraries mobile users wiki – share and discover more information on using mobile devices.

Bisphenol A and Dental Sealants: The Evidence

September 8, 2010

Researchers at Children’s Hospital in Boston recently conducted a systematic review examining the existence of Bisphenol A in dental materials and assessing potential health risks. This chemical is thought to cause problems with reproduction and development.

The study, cited by sources such as CNN and HealthDay News recommends continued use of these dental products, with strict adherence to precautionary application techniques.

Here are some resources for further exploration of this topic:

Read Critical Summaries of Systematic Reviews

May 19, 2010

Wondering how medication effects orthodontic tooth movement? Or if antibiotics used at the time of implant placement prevent complications?

Here is a way to get valid answers, fast; bookmark the American Dental Association’s Evidence Based Dentistry portal.

In addition to its database of systematic reviews of oral health topics, the ADA provides one-page, concise, user-friendly assessments of  systematic reviews. Known as critical summaries, these  assessments are composed by ADA Evidence Reviewers.  New critical summaries are constantly added, recent additions include:

To be updated each time a critical summary is published, subscribe to the ADA’s RSS feed.

Does Periodontal Treatment in Patients with Diabetes Lower Blood Sugar Levels?

May 13, 2010

The Cochrane Oral Health Group recently published Treatment of periodontal disease for glycaemic control in people with diabetes, a systematic review examining the relationship  between periodontal treatment and glycaemic control in diabetics.

The review, which included 7 Randomized Controlled Trials concluded there is evidence of improvement in metabolic control in people with diabetes, after treating periodontal disease.

For more detail, read the full review or listen to the podcast.

More resources may be found by browsing Bibby library’s selected  list of websites on diabetes and oral health.

A bibliography of meta-analysis, RCT’s and reviews follows:

Effect of periodontal treatment on glycemic control of diabetic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2010 Feb;33(2):421-7. Teeuw WJ, Gerdes VE, Loos BG.

Short-term effects of photodynamic therapy on periodontal status and glycemic control of patients with diabetes. J Periodontol. 2009 Oct;80(10):1568-73. Al-Zahrani MS, Bamshmous SO, Alhassani AA, Al-Sherbini MM.

Periodontal treatment to improve glycaemic control in diabetic patients: study protocol of the randomized, controlled DIAPERIO trial. Trials. 2009 Aug 2;10:65. Vergnes JN, Arrivé E, Gourdy P, Hanaire H, Rigalleau V, Gin H, Sédarat C, Dorignac G, Bou C, Sixou M, Nabet C.

Effectiveness of full-mouth and partial-mouth scaling and root planing in treating chronic periodontitis in subjects with type 2 diabetes. J Periodontol. 2009 Aug;80(8):1237-45. Santos VR, Lima JA, De Mendonça AC, Braz Maximo MB, Faveri M, Duarte PM.

The effect of periodontal therapy on serum TNF-alpha and HbA1c levels in type 2 diabetic patients. Dağ A, Firat ET, Arikan S, Kadiroğlu AK, Kaplan A.Aust Dent J. 2009 Mar;54(1):17-22.

Effect of antimicrobial periodontal treatment and maintenance on serum adiponectin in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Matsumoto S, Ogawa H, Soda S, Hirayama S, Amarasena N, Aizawa Y, Miyazaki H.J Clin Periodontol. 2009 Feb;36(2):142-8.

Relationship of Porphyromonas gingivalis with glycemic level in patients with type 2 diabetes following periodontal treatment. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2008 Aug;23(4):348-51. Makiura N, Ojima M, Kou Y, Furuta N, Okahashi N, Shizukuishi S, Amano A.

Does periodontal care improve glycemic control? The Department of Veterans Affairs Dental Diabetes Study. J Clin Periodontol. 2007 Jan;34(1):46-52. Epub 2006 Nov 24. Jones JA, Miller DR, Wehler CJ, Rich SE, Krall-Kaye EA, McCoy LC, Christiansen CL, Rothendler JA, Garcia RI.

Does periodontal treatment improve glycemic control in diabetic patients? A meta-analysis of intervention studies. J Dent Res. 2005 Dec;84(12):1154-9. Janket SJ, Wightman A, Baird AE, Van Dyke TE, Jones JA.

Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment with or without doxycycline on the periodontium of type 1 diabetic patients. Llambés F, Silvestre FJ, Hernández-Mijares A, Guiha R, Caffesse R.J Clin Periodontol. 2005 Aug;32(8):915-20.

The effect of improved periodontal health on metabolic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Kiran M, Arpak N, Unsal E, Erdoğan MF.J Clin Periodontol. 2005 Mar;32(3):266-72.

Therapy with adjunctive doxycycline local delivery in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and periodontitis. Martorelli de Lima AF, Cury CC, Palioto DB, Duro AM, da Silva RC, Wolff LF.J Clin Periodontol. 2004 Aug;31(8):648-53.

The effects of periodontal treatment on diabetes. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003 Oct;134 Spec No:41S-48S.  Taylor GW.

Effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Periodontol. 2003 Sep;74(9):1361-7. Rodrigues DC, Taba MJ, Novaes AB, Souza SL, Grisi MF.

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